Este canal fue creado con el proposito y como su mismo nombre lo dice para dar todo el software (programa) sea de cualquier ambito que sea posible TOTALMENTE. Hola amigos del software libre. Uso programas de diseño gráfico en linux. Pero a la hora de ir a la imprenta me piden marcas de corte y sangrado.
To understand the concept, you should think of 'free' as in ' free speech ', not as in 'free beer ' ". In the late s, other groups published their own definitions that describe an almost identical set of software. Users of these systems generally find the same set of software to be acceptable, but sometimes see copyleft as restrictive.
They generally advocate permissive free software licenses , which allow others to use the software as they wish, without being legally forced to provide the source code. Their view is that this permissive approach is more free. The Kerberos , X11 , and Apache software licenses are substantially similar in intent and implementation. There are thousands of free applications and many operating systems available on the Internet.
Users can easily download and install those applications via a package manager that comes included with most Linux distributions. The Free Software Directory maintains a large database of free software packages. Captura de pagina de manual de OpenSSL. From the s up until the early s, it was normal for computer users to have the software freedoms associated with free software, which was typically public domain software.
Organizations of users and suppliers, for example, SHARE , were formed to facilitate exchange of software. As software was often written in an interpreted language such as BASIC , the source code was distributed to use these programs. Software was also shared and distributed as printed source code Type-in program in computer magazines like Creative Computing , SoftSide , Compute! In United States vs.
IBM , filed January 17, , the government charged that bundled software was anti-competitive. In the s and early s, the software industry began using technical measures such as only distributing binary copies of computer programs to prevent computer users from being able to study or adapt the software applications as they saw fit. In , copyright law was extended to computer programs. In , Richard Stallman , one of the original authors of the popular Emacs program and a longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory , announced the GNU project , the purpose of which was to produce a completely non-proprietary Unix-compatible operating system, saying that he had become frustrated with the shift in climate surrounding the computer world and its users.
In his initial declaration of the project and its purpose, he specifically cited as a motivation his opposition to being asked to agree to non-disclosure agreements and restrictive licenses which prohibited the free sharing of potentially profitable in-development software, a prohibition directly contrary to the traditional hacker ethic. He developed a free software definition and the concept of " copyleft ", designed to ensure software freedom for all.
Some non-software industries are beginning to use techniques similar to those used in free software development for their research and development process; scientists, for example, are looking towards more open development processes, and hardware such as microchips are beginning to be developed with specifications released under copyleft licenses see the OpenCores project, for instance.
Creative Commons and the free culture movement have also been largely influenced by the free software movement. In , Richard Stallman , longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory , announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users.
The manifesto included significant explanation of the GNU philosophy, Free Software Definition and " copyleft " ideas. The Linux kernel , started by Linus Torvalds , was released as freely modifiable source code in The first licence was a proprietary software licence. However, with version 0. BSDi lawsuit was settled out of court in All free software licenses must grant users all the freedoms discussed above. However, unless the applications' licenses are compatible, combining programs by mixing source code or directly linking binaries is problematic, because of license technicalities.
Programs indirectly connected together may avoid this problem. The majority of free software falls under a small set of licenses.
The most popular of these licenses are: The Free Software Foundation and the Open Source Initiative both publish lists of licenses that they find to comply with their own definitions of free software and open-source software respectively:. The FSF list is not prescriptive: So it's possible for a license to be free and not in the FSF list. The OSI list only lists licenses that have been submitted, considered and approved.
All open-source licenses must meet the Open Source Definition in order to be officially recognized as open source software. Free software on the other hand is a more informal classification that does not rely on official recognition.
Nevertheless, software licensed under licenses that do not meet the Free Software Definition cannot rightly be considered free software. Apart from these two organizations, the Debian project is seen by some to provide useful advice on whether particular licenses comply with their Debian Free Software Guidelines. Debian doesn't publish a list of approved licenses, so its judgments have to be tracked by checking what software they have allowed into their software archives.
That is summarized at the Debian web site. There is debate over the security of free software in comparison to proprietary software, with a major issue being security through obscurity. A popular quantitative test in computer security is to use relative counting of known unpatched security flaws.
Generally, users of this method advise avoiding products that lack fixes for known security flaws, at least until a fix is available. Free software advocates strongly believe that this methodology is biased by counting more vulnerabilities for the free software systems, since their source code is accessible and their community is more forthcoming about what problems exist,  This is called "Security Through Disclosure"  and proprietary software systems can have undisclosed societal drawbacks, such as disenfranchising less fortunate would-be users of free programs.
As users can analyse and trace the source code, many more people with no commercial constraints can inspect the code and find bugs and loopholes than a corporation would find practicable.
According to Richard Stallman, user access to the source code makes deploying free software with undesirable hidden spyware functionality far more difficult than for proprietary software. Some quantitative studies have been done on the subject. In , OpenBSD started the first campaign against the use of binary blobs in kernels. Blobs are usually freely distributable device drivers for hardware from vendors that do not reveal driver source code to users or developers.
This restricts the users' freedom effectively to modify the software and distribute modified versions. Also, since the blobs are undocumented and may have bugs , they pose a security risk to any operating system whose kernel includes them. The proclaimed aim of the campaign against blobs is to collect hardware documentation that allows developers to write free software drivers for that hardware, ultimately enabling all free operating systems to become or remain blob-free.
The issue of binary blobs in the Linux kernel and other device drivers motivated some developers in Ireland to launch gNewSense , a Linux based distribution with all the binary blobs removed. The project received support from the Free Software Foundation and stimulated the creation, headed by the Free Software Foundation Latin America , of the Linux-libre kernel.
Selling software under any free software licence is permissible, as is commercial use. This is true for licenses with or without copyleft. Since free software may be freely redistributed, it is generally available at little or no fee. Free software business models are usually based on adding value such as customization, accompanying hardware, support, training, integration, or certification.
Fees are usually charged for distribution on compact discs and bootable USB drives, or for services of installing or maintaining the operation of free software. Development of large, commercially used free software is often funded by a combination of user donations, crowdfunding , corporate contributions, and tax money. Proprietary software on the other hand tends to use a different business model, where a customer of the proprietary application pays a fee for a license to legally access and use it.
This license may grant the customer the ability to configure some or no parts of the software themselves. Often some level of support is included in the purchase of proprietary software, but additional support services especially for enterprise applications are usually available for an additional fee. Some proprietary software vendors will also customize software for a fee. The Free Software Foundation encourages selling free software. As the Foundation has written, "distributing free software is an opportunity to raise funds for development.
Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer stated in that "open source is not available to commercial companies. The way the license is written, if you use any open-source software, you have to make the rest of your software open source. This requirement does not extend to other software from the same developer. The claim of incompatibility between commercial companies and Free Software is also a misunderstanding. There are several large companies, e.
Free software played a significant part in the development of the Internet, the World Wide Web and the infrastructure of dot-com companies. Companies that contribute to free software increase commercial innovation. Most companies in the software business include free software in their commercial products if the licenses allow that.
Free software is generally available at no cost and can result in permanently lower TCO costs compared to proprietary software. Free software often has no warranty, and more importantly, generally does not assign legal liability to anyone.
However, warranties are permitted between any two parties upon the condition of the software and its usage. Such an agreement is made separately from the free software license. Raymond argues that the term free software is too ambiguous and intimidating for the business community.
Raymond promotes the term open-source software as a friendlier alternative for the business and corporate world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Which of the following Linux utilities does NOT include the capability to list the process IDs of running applications? Given the 'jobs' display in the exhibit, which command could you use to switch display focus to the application 'vi'? Given the 'jobs' display in the exhibit, which command could you use to terminate the application 'vi'?
Suppose you have a running program called 'myprog', that is a child of the current shell. You would like to decrease the CPU usage of this program. Which of the following command lines can you use to make 'myprog' yield more CPU resources? Correctly parsing a C source file requires a full-fledged parser such as that built into a C compiler. Nonetheless, regular expressions can be used to provide a pretty good approximate descriptions of many program constructs. Which of the following searches will locate at least most of the C functions that accept an int as a first argument, and return an int and will not produce false positives very often.
The exhibit contains a fragment of C code with several annotated matching and non-matching functions for non-C programmers.
Some tools that use regular expressions support so-called "extended" regular expressions. For example, GNU 'grep' with the '-E' option uses extended regular expressions. Other tools like 'sed' only support "basic" regular expressions. As a consequence, one must be careful in selecting the right regular expression syntax. Which of the following characters have a special meaning in extended regular expressions, but not in basic regular expressions.
That is, which of the following is an extended regular expression "meta-character", but only a regular character in basic regular expressions? Based on Linux' partition naming system, which of the following device names point to "logical" partitions assuming the corresponding partitions exist at all on the system in question?
Which of the following command lines can possibly be used to format a partition? Assume required partitions exist, and also that logical partitioning is used on each hard-disk. Which Linux command can be used to repair improperly shutdown, or otherwise potentially corrupt partitions?
Which of the following command lines will produce an ad hoc report on the total disk space used personally by the current user?
Which Linux command can be used to determine the available space on local hard-disk partitions? Which of the following lines in the file causes a fixed and user-writeable partition to be mounted?
Which Linux command can be used to limit the disk space usage allowance of a particular user? Assume for this question that quotas are enabled for the filesystem s in use on the system in question. You would like all the users of the system to be able to run your application.
Which of the following command lines would allow the appropriate access? Proper file security is particularly important for CGI applications invoked over the web, given the diversity of users.
Which of the command lines setup reasonable file permissions for a CGI applications? Even though particular web servers may require slightly different configurations, you should be able to rule out all the wrong answers below. Which Linux command is used to assign privileges over a particular file to a designated user.
According to the Linux filesystem hierarchy standard, which of the following directories would be an appropriate location for a user to install a shared application to? Which of the following Linux command lines can be used to examine kernel bootup messages after boot time?
Assume that the 'lilo' command has been run while this configuration file is as listed. Which of the following statements correctly describes what happens when this machine boots up?
Suppose that you have several files matching the filename pattern 'file'.
Free software advocates strongly believe that this methodology is biased by counting more vulnerabilities for the free software systems, since their source code is accessible and their community is more forthcoming about what problems exist,  This is called "Security Through Disclosure"  and proprietary software systems can have undisclosed societal drawbacks, such as disenfranchising less fortunate would-be users of free programs.